26 Sep 2017 : Sylhet, Bangladesh :

27 August 2015 যে কথা হয়নি বলা  (পঠিত : 2745) 

A short description of Muslims Migration in Manipur


Md. Abdus Samad এর লিখা।   রঙের বাড়ই   পাতা থেকে


Manipur was once a sovereign kingdom, but now it is a state of India, situated in the north eastern part of the India. Meitei (Manipuries) are the majority dwellers of the state but the Meitei Pangals (Manipuri Muslims) are also living there as a co- dwellers since centuries ago. Now the Muslim forms a population of 8.32 percent of the total state population. But it is now a curious questions that when and how the Muslims of Manipur migrated in the state.

First Muslims Migration:
Though the brief descriptions of the first Muslim Migration in Manipur were not recorded uninterruptedly, but we could able get some data from the available interrupted descriptions that, some Muslims arrived in Manipur in the first or second decade of the 5th century on their transit to China using the Silk Route. The senior researcher of the Manipur University and a dedicated historian Mr. Farooque Ahmed claimed in his book naming ‘Manipuri Muslims: Historical perspectives 615-2000 CE’ that in that relevant time some Arab Muslims arrived in Manipur. He also mentioned that the subject was recorded in the ‘Puwa’ the successive historical record book of the Manipur kingdom. Some writers also claimed that the Muslims were leaving there long before the war of 1606 C.E. It is said that the Muslims were brought from Sylhet probably in 1564 CE to obtain the technique of making Weapons. The descendant of the above two categories of Muslims are now called Aribam Sagai (old settler) in the history of Manipur. Mr. Farooque Ahmed claimed that the word ‘Aribam’ derived from the Arabic word ‘Aribah’. The meaning of the word is ‘pure Arab’. He also claimed that the clan Aribam was created from the Arabian settler in Manipur. (Farooque Ahmed-‘Manipuri Muslims: Historical perspectives 615-2000 C.E’) The dwellers of ‘Aribam’ clan were participated in the war of 1603CE in favor of the Meitei king. Mr. Md Ali Jonab Khan M.A (Lecturer G.P. Women’s college Imphal) claimed in his book naming ‘Manipuri Muslim’ that in a old historical scripture retained in Manipur naming ‘Nagsamai’ noted Shekh Ruba, Asik Shah, Kutrun Kha, Sadique were as founder of the ‘Aribam’ clan. ‘Turko Afgangi chad Nowda’(Descendent of Turko-Afgan) a book written by M. Khairuddin of lilong Manipur also claimed Asik Shah, Ruba Shekh and Kutrun Khan were as founder of the ‘Aribam’ clan mentioning that they were came to Manipur during the epoch of king Muangba.

Massive Muslims Migration and settlement:
Whatever else, subsequently the massive migration and settlement of Muslims in Manipur was happened at the time of Manipuri-Muslim war of 1606 C.E during the reign of king Khagemba. The misunderstood arose among the members of the royal family make the ground of the massive Muslims migration in Manipur. The short descriptions of the occurrences is that, Once Chingsamba a prince of Manipur participated in a boat racing competition by hiring a boat from his step brother Sanangba, but accidently the end of the boat was slightly broken. On this petty occurrence a quarrel was arises and finally Sanangba flew to his brother-in-low Satru Daman (Dimasa Protafil), the Cachari king. Later on Sanangba formed there a force according to the suggestion of his brother-in-law and mother and started conspiracy to occupy the thrown of the Manipur. Sanangba recruited there some Muslims soldiers in addition to his followers came from Manipur.(R.K. Jaljit Singh’s, ’A History of Manipur’ –Page 98) Sanangba attacked Manipur in 1603 and 1605 C.E with his newly formed forces taking help from the Cachari forces. (L. Ibonghal Singh’s, ‘Introduction to Manipur’-page 172) Sanangba defeated in the war. Then he had seek help from the Pathan (Afghan) Ruler of Sylhet, the second Bayezid Karrani through his brother-in-Law Satru Daman.{Khairuddin Khulakpam’s ‘Turkey Afghangi chad nowda’ (Descendent of Turko Afgan) page-8, and Prof. N.M. Islam’s ‘মণিপুরী ভাষাভাষী মুসলিম সম্প্রদায়ঃ সাম্প্রতিক কিছু গবেষণা ও একটি সমীক্ষা’ published in ‘Komolika’ December 1986 (a Megazine Edited by Soytto Brotto Deb Roy) Page-22} At that time the Pathan Rulers of Sylhet, Usman gar (South Sylhet), Taraf, Baniachong were extremely engaged in fighting jointly against the Mughal forces in the western front of the greater Sylhet area. After getting request from the Cachari king Bayezid Karrani referred the matter with his suggestions to Khawaja Usman Lohani the leader of the Pathan Rulers of the area. After getting suggestions from Bayezid Karrani, Khawaja Usman Lohani realized the need for improving relations with the neighboring states of the eastern front, especially with the Cachari King. Finally he ordered his son, the then Nayebe Nazir/Nawab of the Taraf to send Army to the Cachar. The Nawab of Taraf selected thousands of Army from the war field and sent them to Cachar accompanying with Sanangba. General Mohammad Sani (Mohammad Lohani) a cousin of the Nawab was appointed as a chief of the Army envoys accompanying 16 generals and 1007 experience warriors with him. Khoirakpam Chauba a renowned writer also described that the Muslim Soldiers who came to fight in 1606 A.D were the men of Khawaja Usman Lohani in his historical Novel ‘Lobongo Lota’. ( Quazi Hamid Ali’s, ‘The Manipuri Muslim’ Page-8) Historian Atul Chandra Roy also claims that Khawaja Usman Lohani , the son of Isa Khan Lohani and nephew of Kutlu Khan Lohani of Orissa maintained a close alliance with the Afghan chiefs of Sylhet such as Bayazid Karrani and Anwar Khan in his book ‘History of Bengal’. (Quazi Hamid Ali’s, ‘The Manipuri Muslim’ Page-8) On arrival of Muslims Warriors to Mybong (the Capital of the Cachar) the Cachari King Satru Daman (Dimasa Protafil) ordered his brother and the Chief of Army Vimball and the General Yakharek to complete the arrangement to attack the Manipur. The alliance force started for Manipur in due time. (Mohammad Ali Jonab Khan’s, ‘Manipuri Muslim’ page-8 &9) The Manipuri Warriors defended them when the alliance Force Reached Bishnupur after crossing the border of Manipur. Apparently a strong war was started there, but the war failed to resolve the crisis. Finally, The Manipuri and the Muslims warriors were come to an understanding to stop the war in lieu of permanent settlement of Muslims in Manipur. Accordingly, the king had taken all the steps to rehabilitate all the Muslims by giving land, service and other facilities. He also allowed them to marry Manipuri girls. The chief of the Muslims warriors Mohammad Sani(Lohani) was appointed as an Advisor of the King and Kazi of the Muslim community.

Subsequent Migration:
A group of Muslims from Taraf under the leadership of Syed Ambia entered to Manipur in 1609 CA during the reign of Khagemba Maharaja. Syed Hossain a member of the above group brought Al-Quran to t in 1 he Manipur. (MA Jonab khan’s ‘Manipuri Muslim’ page 9 and 10) Subsequently 612 CA when the Mughals flag was raised in all the part of Sylhet after the falling of khaza Usman Lohani and bayezid Karrani II, many Afgan/Pathan flew away and spread out all over the Sylhet and Assam. It was strongly said that a group of defeated warriors were also flew up to Manipur and were living there incognito Muslims living there. The Migration of Esaque Ali Mollah, a misfortune General with a group of Muslims in 1653 CA during the reign of king Khagemba from a place known to Manipuries as ‘Promitta’ is now a bright component of the history.(MA Jonab khan’s ‘Manipuri Muslim’ page-10) Two immigrant Princes with their some followers from a land known to Manipuies as ‘Makak’ arrived Manipur in 1678 CA, after visiting many countries during the rule of king Pakhangba. They became very delighted observing the lovely scenarios of the Manipur and they settled there. (MA Jonab khan’s ‘Manipuri Muslim’ page -11)
Arival of Shah Suja the prince of Mughal:
Dr. Jhon Piter wade the writer of ‘An Accounts of Assam’ and some others historian claimed that Shah Suja the Prince of Mughal with his some accompanies entered Manipur secretly crossing the Jungles of Tripura serving some imaginary tells through his followers in Arakan to save themself. They stayed in the Jungle of Manipur among the Muslims living there concealing their own identity.

Assam invasion of Mirjumla:
During the time of attacking Assam by Mirzumla the natural disaster and diseases in the form of epidemic was broken out and famine in Bengal stopped their food supply, so the mental strength of the Mughal soldiers were cracked down. In that circumstances some Mughal warriors left the camp and entered in to Naga Hills, finaly they entered Manipur crossing the Naga Hills. They found some Muslims already residing there, so they also settled there. (Mussalman Manipuri, in the Magazine Masik Mohammadi-Augrahayan-1341 Bangla sal)

Arrival of a mob of Pathan:
A mob of Pathan under the leadership of Puton khan the courageous man of the Pathan entered Manipur In 1688 CA. Long after; another group of Muslims came to Manipur and settled with the above mentioned Muslims. They came to Manipur during the reign of Krisna Chandra of the Cashar. (Quazi Hamid Ali’s ‘The Manipuri Muslim’-Page 11) N Khel Chandra Singh also supported the above statement in his book naming ‘Ariba Manipuri Sahittagi Etihas’.

Rajkumer sree Sanahal Singh claimed that the upcoming of Muslims crowed from the west started during the time of Khagemba was continued during the time of king Khunjauba (1652-66), king Paikhomba (166-97), king Choraironba (1697-1709), king Pamhaiba who was most familiar as Garib Naaz (1709- 48), King Ching Sai (1748- 52), King Bharotsai (1752-53), King Muwamba surname Gaur Shyam (1753-59 and 1762-63) and King Chingthangkhomba surname Bhaigyo Chandra (1759-62 and 1763-98) and they settled in Manipur.(Rajkumer sree Sanahal Singh’s ‘Pangal Thorakpa’,page-vi) The Burmese King Baggidow invaded Manipur in 1819, then Marjit the king and Gambhir the Prince of Manipur were fled to Cachar first but the Burmese warriors invaded Cachar in 1824, then they flew again to Sylhet and took shelter of the British ruler. Ghambhir Singh the prince of Manipur formed an arm forces there as ‘Manipur Levy’. Some Local Muslims also joined in the force. Most of them remained in Manipur after the re-occupation of the state. Jamai Mia was one of the such Sylheti Muslim. Jamai Mia reached Manipur in 1852 CA as a sapoy of Manipur Levy and married a Manipuri Muslim girl there. During the reign of Gambhir Singh he was promoted as Jamader. His descendent were titled as ‘Mayang Mayum Ariba’ (Oldest Bengali clan) by Gambhir Singh. In 1855 CA Chandra Kirti occupied the throne of Manipur after returning from Cachar. At that time One Yasin Miah came to Manipur accompanying with Chandra Kirti. Subsequently, his descendent were titled as Mayang Mayum Anauba (New Bengali clan). (Kulo Chandra Sorma and Badaruddin’s ‘ Meitei Pangal Haurakpham’, page 118-119)

The distinct features of the Manipuri Muslims are, they were not created from a single nation or clan. They came from various Countries or Places, though the maximum of their forefathers were Pathans from Bengal. The various groups of people became a unique nation by only holding the Manipuri Language, Culture and Islamic ideology as their own. Some of the above arrived Manipur by shunting themself as invader, again some arrived as travelers, some arrived to get political shelter and some arrived to save themselves from the state autocracy and socio-political torchers in their own countries. Actually the various Muslims migrated from different places of Asia began to settled in Manipur and subsequently they strengthen their transformations to Manipuri by marrying Manipuri girls and the transformations were encouraged by the liberal thought of the Manipuri peoples including their royal forces. As a result it enhanced the thought and culture of the entire Manipuri. It strengthens the overall strength of the country.